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Took almost a year to read, but worth it. This is one of my favorite works Yeah, I know you re skeptical, but here me out I ve begun my quest to read the basic works of western man beginning with Gilgamesh and in sequence reading through to the present It s a lifelong ambition I ve read most of the ancient works of some repute, including Roman histories from Greek and Roman historians When I arrived at 411 AD, I picked up The City of God Shortly after the first sack of Rome, Augustine wrote it not as an apology for the claim that Christianity was responsible for the decay of Rome, but as a defense against that allegation He then summarizes the histories as recorded to show internal corruption, incompetence, immorality and the quest for wealth caused the decay not Christianity I read the same material he did That s way cool I knew exactly what he was saying and with what facts he prosecuted his claim Then he projected that even if the City of Rome were to fall, Christians can look forward ultimately to their City of God A great book. Once on the beach at Utica, I saw with my own eyes and there were others to bear me witness a human molar tooth so big that it could have been cut up, I think, into a hundred pieces each as big as one of our modern teeth. I m trying to think of books that might be equal to this one in importance to Western history Plato s Republic the works of Aristotle Euclid s Elements Homer s epics There aren t many This book arguably set the tone for the entire Middle Ages that followed It is a vast, sweeping, powerful, and cockamamie book it is a true classic.Augustine wrote The City of God over a period of 13 years He began the work when he was 59, and finished it when he was 72 The work was occasioned by the capture of Rome in 410 by the barbarian leader Alaric, king of the Visigoths It was a brutal defeat for the Romans, with much destruction, rape, pillage, and death More than that, it was a symbolic defeat, the first time Rome had been taken by a foreign enemy in hundreds of years Unsurprisingly, the remaining pagans blamed the newly ascendant Christians for this calamity If the old gods were worshiped, the critics argued, this never would have happened Rome was never taken when Jupiter was praised and when Nike, goddess of victory, was gracing the Curia of the Roman Senate The statue of Nike, the Altar of Victory, had been removed from the Curia by Constantius II, briefly reinstalled by Julian the Apostate, and then removed again In short, the Roman Empire was collapsing and it was all the Christians fault.These accusations were what prompted Augustine to begin this work but as the book grew, so did Augustine s ambitions By the middle, the beginning has been forgotten and by the end, the middle is a distant memory Because Augustine frequently interrupts his main points to indulge in lengthy digressions, the reader is often mired in pages and pages of side issues and curiosities Yet there does remain one vital central idea It is therefore quite tough to give a fair impression of this book s contents To paraphrase Bertrand Russell, if I focus only on Augustine s main thesis, then it will make this chaotic jumble seem too unified and focused yet if I lose myself in the details, then I ll omit its most lasting contribution I even have it easier than most readers, since I read an abridgment meant to cut out much of the extraneous material Even so, there is a new topic on almost every page So I think I ll follow Russell s approach in his History of Western Philosophy and give you a taste of some digressions before tackling Augustine s major themes.Early on in the book, Augustine considers whether virgins who were raped in the sack of Rome have lost their virginity He argues that, as long as they did not consent and did not enjoy it, they are still virgins Augustine even argues that being raped might have been a good thing for some of them, since it taught them not to be haughty about their virginity It s frightening that, at the time, this opinion was considered quite progressive He considers whether the extremely long lifespans reported of some Biblical figures such as Adam s purportedly 900 year long life should be interpreted literally, or whether, as some argued, 10 years back then was equivalent to 1 of our years, thus arriving at a realistic figure for Adam s age, 90 Augustine thinks Adam did live 900 years In resolving this question, Augustine notes that there are several discrepancies in the ages reported of certain people in different versions of the Bible specifically, the original Hebrew Bible said one thing, and the Septuagint said another For those who don t know, the Septuagint was a Greek translation of the Bible, done by 70 Jewish scribes in the 3rd or 2nd century BCE at the behest of the Egyptian king, Ptolemy II The legend says that all 70 scribes completed their translations separately, only comparing them at the end, and they turned out to be all miraculously identical Augustine concludes that, though the Septuagint was indeed divinely inspired, where it differed from the original Hebrew, the original should be trusted.In a lengthy section, Augustine attempts to correlate secular history with biblical history, doing his best to place the events of the Old Testament in the context of Greek and Roman history He even speculates on the possibility that Plato might have read parts of the Old Testament, since parts of Plato s Timeaus are so similar to the Book of Genesis Augustine is against judicial torture, thinking it vile and illogical to torture witnesses and the accused He anticipates Descartes s cogito ergo sum In the face of these truths, the quibbles of the skeptics lose their force If they say What if you are mistaken well, if I am mistaken, I am For, if one does not exist, he can be no means be mistaken Therefore, I am, if I am mistaken By the by, Augustine also anticipated Kant s subjective theory of time, which Augustine put forth in the eleventh book of his Confessions Augustine attempts to prove that living, physical bodies can, indeed, be tortured endlessly in the fires of hell, since, as everyone knows, salamanders live in fire, and peacock meat never putrefies So what s so miraculous about human bodies endlessly burning in the flames I actually can t resist including a bit about the peacock meat Apparently, having heard from someone else that peacock meat never spoils, Augustine set aside a piece of roasted peacock meat when he was served it at a friend s house He observed this piece of meat for a whole year, noting that even after all that time it never began to stink it only got dry and shriveled Now, presumably the piece of meat had been thoroughly cooked and salted, so make of that what you will While I m at it, I also want to include a story Augustine tells about a friend of his who had hemorrhoids and had to have surgery As the man was fearful of going under the knife, Augustine and several other friends had a loud and fervent prayer session before the surgery If I had to get surgery back then, I d be praying too And the surgery was a success Now for some meaty issues Augustine formulates here the idea of original sin, arguing that Adam s fall changed the nature of humankind, filling us with sinful desires and causing death to enter the world Augustine thinks, for example, that before the fall, Adam and Eve could choose to have sex without any feeling of sexual desire all of the physiological prerequisites for intercourse to use a polite expression were under just as much control as our arms and legs In short, Adam could just choose to have an erection without feeling horny But now, in order to reproduce, we are at the mercy of our desires, which we cannot directly control and which threaten to overwhelm our rational minds Thus is the sorry state of fallen man As a consequence of this belief, Augustine also argues that unbaptized infants go to hell not being cleansed of original sin, they simply must By the way, there are several memorable passages in Augustine s extraordinary autobiography, his Confessions, where he chastises his infant self for being so greedy of food and drink, and so selfish of love and attention Several other ideas are connected to Augustine s conception of original sin Since humankind is fallen, it is impossible for us without God s aid to do good deeds and to achieve salvation salvation is granted from God, it is a gift of divine grace, not something we earn Augustine also believed in predestination God, being omniscient, foreknew which people would end up saved, and which would end up damned So in addition to anticipating Descartes and Kant, Augustine also anticipates Calvin From what I hear, a lot of the Protestant Reformation involved a return to Augustine s teachings, but I m not so knowledgeable about this I should point out that these ideas weren t commonly accepted at the time Just the reverse many people argued vociferously against these doctrines Notably, Pelagius, an ascetic from England, argued that humans were not born already damned or, in other words, there was no original sin in the Augustan sense that humans had absolute free will, and thus were not predestined to be saved or damned and that the grace of God was not necessary to do good works Augustine combated Pelagius s ideas with his typical intolerant zeal, considering them heresies, and succeeded, after a long fight, in making his own opinions orthodox for a long time to come.As befitting a great Christian thinker, Augustine also tackles some of the perennial problems of Christian philosophy One of these is free will Now, without free will, the entire worldview of Christianity collapses, since then there is no fair basis of separating people into the saved and the damned Yet God is omnipotent and omniscient this means that when He created the world, He knew exactly what was going to happen So how can we reconcile these attributes of God with free will Augustine does so by noting that, although God knows what you will do and whether you will be saved, His knowing doesn t cause you to make the choices you make Augustine also addresses the so called problem of evil This is another classic paradox of Christianity, which results from trying to harmonize the undeniable existence of evil in the world with God s omnipotence and His infinite goodness If God was truly all powerful and purely good, why is there evil in the world Augustine makes several classic replies.First, he notes that, by allowing some evil in parts of creation, the whole might be, by consequence, even better, as the resulting goodness outweighs the evil In short, goodness is cheap unless it is tested with temptation so the presence of some evil is necessary for the existence of good Augustine also notes that God never causes evil directly, since it is only His creatures that choose evil For Augustine, as for many others, evil doesn t really exist evil is a lack of existence, the same way darkness is a lack of light and cold a lack of heat Thus, God never created anything evil all existence, as existence, is good His creatures, through their own perversity, have sometimes chosen evil So even Satan himself, insofar as he exists, is good though his nature has been corrupted by his wicked ways this corruption presumably being some sort of deficiency in his existence Augustine even plays with Aristotelian terminology, saying that evil never has an efficient cause the direct, or proximate, cause of something , but only a deficient cause.I know that my opinion is not worth nearly as much as Augustine s in this matter, but I do want to include my thoughts I don t find Augustine s answer to the problem of evil satisfactory And this is because, even if God is not indeed the proximate cause of evil, He would still be the ultimate cause, since He created the universe with full knowledge that evil would result from His action It s like this If I am a leader of a country, and choose to go to war with another country, I am not the direct cause of people dying that was presumably the guns and other weapons And arguably the soldiers on both sides do have some share in the responsibility, since each of them chose to participate, to fight, to kill, to risk their lives, and so on Yet ultimately it was my decision to send all these people into battle, and I think I would share a large portion of the responsibility and if the action were unjust the guilt If the war was indeed justified and necessary, and the result was good for the world, that would make the action excusable, but it would not negate all of the pain and suffering inflicted on the soldiers, nor would it make me any less responsible for their fate Besides, I find this whole business of balancing good and evil, as if weighing a scale, quite absurd If an innocent person suffers, if a single child is abused or crippled by sickness, how can any amount of goodness elsewhere make that okay Here s an example Imagine there are ten people on an island with very limited food There is only enough food for each person to stay alive, but not enough to make them energetic and happy So when all ten people are living there, eating the food available, the total satisfaction level is around 40% Now, if nine of them ganged up on the last one, and killed and ate him, it s possible that, even though there would be a lot of pain inflicted on that one man, the joy experienced by the remaining nine of having real meat, and the extra resources freed up on the island by having one less person, might in the long run make the general satisfaction level higher perhaps 60% Does that justify killing the man I think not My point is that the happiness of the many cannot be balanced against the misery of the few, like an accountant balancing an earnings report Now, I know this review is already extremely long, but I haven t even gotten to Augustine s main thesis the City of God Augustine divides up humankind into two metaphorical cities the City of Man and the City of God Members of the City of Man are swollen with pride they think that they can achieve happiness in this life, through satisfying their bodily desires or by practicing human virtue by creating peaceful cities and just laws by trade, wealth, power, fame, and wisdom Yet, noble as some of them may be, this goal is pure vanity In this life, we are too beset with troubles and uncertainties to have real happiness States try to create justice, but their laws are frail human creations, constantly failing to attain their goal of absolute justice since so many sinners go unpunished and so many innocents are unduly condemned with the result that the laws are always being changed, updated, reformed, and differ from country to country, from place to place, all without getting any closer to their goal The Stoics attempt to achieve happiness through virtue alone, without any hope of heaven and yet how often do painful disease, the loss of a loved one, the failure of a scheme, the unquenchable passions in our breast overwhelm our reason and cast us into abject misery Members of the City of God are not exempt from any of these miseries However, they know that they are mere pilgrims on this earth They place their hopes, not in this life, but in the life to come Thus they are not misled by the vanities of earthly happiness, but act in harmony with God s will to achieve salvation This doctrine, though simple enough, proved to be immensely influential Augustine not only separates church and state, but subordinates the state to the church Temporal authority is just the product of consensus, while the authority of the church comes from God The resultant history of the Middle Ages, with the rising political power of the Catholic Church, owes much to Augustine for its intellectual justification and formulation Again, the importance and influence of this book could hardly be overestimated.After spending so much energy reading, summarizing, and responding to this book, I am almost at a loss for how to make a final evaluation Augustine is obviously a genius of the highest order, and even now it is difficult for me to avoid be sucked into the endless labyrinths of his mind This is especially impressive to me when I consider that I am not a Catholic, not even a Christian, and disagree with almost everything he says More than that, although I have immense admiration for his originality and his brilliance, I often find his perspective unhealthy, intolerant, dogmatic, and generally unappealing Perhaps what I like least about Augustine is his incredible, I would even say his morbid, sense of sin In his Confessions, there is a famous section where he berates his child self for stealing a peach from a peach tree From his rhetoric, you would think that he committed a genocide even after all these years, he seems wracked with guilt and filled with shame To me, as I suspect to many others nowadays, this is absurd, even a bit childish I admit a part of me wants to admire him for feeling so bad for his misdeeds but when I really think it over, I do not even find this admirable The sense of sin is, in my opinion, an unrealistic and unhealthy way of thinking I think the whole idea of sin is wrong headed Sins are not mere bad deeds or mistakes, but, in Augustine s view, the byproduct of our fallen and sinful nature, with the power to actively corrupt and taint our immortal souls In other words, sin is a reflection of our true self , or at least a part of it, and acting out these evil impulses makes us unworthy human beings, fit for eternal torture.This makes no sense to me Sometimes people commit bad actions but, to me, it is sensible to focus on why the action was bad, rather than how the person is evil for committing this action For example, if I get angry and say something hurtful to my friend, I can respond to it by isolating what I said, figuring out why I said it, determining why my friend thought it was hurtful which requires empathy and then apologizing to my friend and trying to learn from this experience Or I might, as Augustine would, start thinking about how I have done an evil thing, pray incessantly, beg God for forgiveness, and for years afterward torment myself with the thought of this wrong action The first is adult and responsible, the second is self obsessed and self absorbed To me, this endless chastisement for bad actions is immature on many levels.First, the sin is attributed to your sinful nature , rather than to a habit of yours or to a mistaken assumption, which I think is plain hogwash, and which also doesn t help you focus on what really caused the problem nobody is inherently evil or good we have bad or good habits, and can change them if we want Second, since the sense of sin makes people obsess about whether they will be damned or saved, it makes people think about their actions through an intensely selfish lens their own fate rather than promoting good behavior through empathizing with those around you So in summary I find the idea of sin to be counterproductive to living a happy and ethical life.This is what I find most intensely unattractive about Augustine s personality Yet, if I am to practice what I preach, I must not condemn Augustine the man for this behavior, but only a bad habit of thinking he developed And if I am to weigh everything lovable and unlovable in the scales of my affection, I must admit that I find Augustine to be one of the most compelling personalities and extraordinary thinkers in all of history This is not a book for just Catholics, or even just for Christians This is a book for everyone, for all of time So to repeat the words that lead to Augustine s conversion to the faith, Pick up and read, pick up and read, pick up and read. UhI only had to read half of this for school But it was still really long Imagine you re in a math class And the teacher says, Now we re going to learn about numbers one plus one is two, two plus two is four, etc And you think, Yeah Okay I get that Then all of a sudden, while your mind wanders around, the teacher says, So now that you ve got that, let s talk about calculus And then your brain explodes from the jump that it just made.This is sort of how City of God treated me Augustine would say, So God created angels, the world, Adam and Eve and I think, Yeah Okay I get that And then all of a sudden, Augustine says, So God made us out of nothing, which is why our souls are mutable, but evil cannot exist outside of goodness, so nothing is not the same as non existence or something confusing like that And then my brain explodes from trying to comprehend eternity.Also, it does not help when Augustine goes on one of his many tangents Like, So about God s will Some people think it s like fate It s not Hey, speaking of fate, you know why astrology is wrong Because twins are born under the same stars and they don t live identical lives Ha So there But back to God s will Except with 5 million times words And you spend all this time reading about astrology and twins before coming back to the main point I did appreciate all the thought that Augustine put into his writing It sounds like he very much loved the Bible Which is really cool And he goes through a lot of really exciting concepts It s justso long I had no idea what I was getting into when I began this book It sometimes felt like it would never end, but it was a great experience First, I discovered how early on very basic Christian doctrines were lost I loved what he says about the trinity I was fascinated by how he defined demons man made gods I would define a demon as a devil s angel Also interesting to me was Augustine s take on the God of Israel s name being the conjugated Hebrew verb to be rendered I am that I am To me, this seems a very obvious way of showing that He is the only God who actually, in fact, exists the only God who is not the workmanship of man s hands as it were There is an awful lot of time wasted on incredibly menial an irrelevant questions like whether God can count infinite numbers whether He knows they exist Really Why Then there were bits I found very entertaining, like Augustine s insistence that woman is weaker than man, and it was she who succumbed to temptation because Adam was too strong, and Solomon was too strong he had to be led into temptation by his wives or that Aaron wouldn t have made the golden calf without Miriam s making the decision first Most convenient and amusing, I thought However, there were also really beautiful and profound parts Pride is the beginning of sin And what is pride but the craving for undue exaltation And this is undue exaltation when the soul abandons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and becomes a kind of end to itself Also Though good and bad men suffer alike, we must not suppose that there is no difference between the men themselves, because there is no difference in what they both suffer For even in the likeness of the sufferings, there remains an unlikeness in the sufferers and though exposed to the same anguish, virtue and vice are not the same thing For as the same fire causes gold to glow brightly, and chaff to smoke and under the same flail the straw is beaten small, while the grain is cleansed and as the lees are not mixed with the oil, though squeezed out of the vat by the same pressure, so the same violence of affliction proves, purges, clarifies the good, but damns, ruins, exterminates the wicked Very similar metaphor in Isaiah 28 the parable of the Lord, the Farmer He continues to say that So material a difference does it make, not what ills are suffered, but what kind of man suffers them Beautiful Also, No sin is committed save by that desire or will by which we desire that it be well with us and shrink from it being ill with us That therefore is a lie which we do in order that it may be well with us, but which makes us miserable than we were And why is this, but because the source of man s happiness lies only in God, whom he abandons when he sins I really liked these nuggets Augustine seems to spend a lot of time trying to prove points that I feel are completely irrelevant e.g is it possible for a human body to burn eternally in fire and not be consumed He goes on to explain that because there is a specimen of worm that not only lives in a hot spring, but nowhere else, a body could last eternity in fire and not be consumed Who cares about this stuff And why does it matter And why is it for us to figure out The mechanics of how God does things those are the things I feel are much better left to faith. OMG, I FINISHED One of the best books ever written Augustine wrote this just as Rome was coming to an end Part of the impetus was to show that the City of God was not confined to the Roman Empire, but would outlast any earthly empire The amount of detail he poured into describing the pagan culture of his time was also amazing Also, he offers some fascinating theological insights towards the end of the book.If you want to understand Western Christendom, you really have to read this book from cover to cover. Evolution was a religious Idea Back in 410 Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in North Africa was the first to describe evolution by natural selection We see a constant succession, as some things pass away and others arise, as the weaker succumb to the stronger, and those that are overwhelmed change into the qualities of their conquerors and thus we have a pattern of a world of continual transience This book is a tremendous work At 1090 pages long it is a vast collection of religious musings and thoughts Though it starts with a rather tedious microscopic analysis of the sins of the day it slowly transforms into a detailed bible study and finally a theological, philosophical and even scientific treasure troth.Saying that though, there are a few bits in it that seem a bit fifth century and are a bit dated when viewed with today s eyes At one point he comically rejects the idea that people live on the other side of the world However considering its age those parts that we now know to be incorrect are few and far between In some ways he is my hero He brought theology and observations about the world together Being in one sense the first clergymen to realise that science and religion were complementary Augustine says in the book that god is the author of all natures There are no argument that Dawkins is presently using that Augustine didn t unpick by logic 1600 years ago.Augustine does though lay the foundation for the catholic church s Galileo s heresy trials Augustine suggests in this book that authority or at least agreement between learned men provides a strong fortress from which a particular point of view can be defended Augustine failed to realise that the fortresses themselves could and would be built above fallacious points of view Augustine criticised the idolisation of the pontiff He recounts stories of ancient meteorite falls in Italy The unbelievable range and scope of this book will make it one of the most interesting books you will ever read. This is a truly COLOSSAL book You know, there are two ways of getting answers in the world there s getting the world s answers and that s sometimes doublethink and there s getting TRANSCENDENTAL answers Sub specie eternitatis, transcendental answers are the ONLY important ones.And they re what Augustine gives usIf you cut through the layers of your illusions about it, it s all about one central fact, from which you can then draw your own conclusions There are two parallel worlds on this planet One of them is a cold, grasping, calculating in a word, selfish world the other is a world of warm, compassionate, caring, but quite ordinary, human beings In a word, a loving world Hard to believe Take a closer look at the people around you Some of them uniformly choose to do good They d be lost if they didn t So, why are they JUST SO PLAIN NICE It s not just to please youMaybe, just maybe, they think if they lose their way in the world they JUST MIGHT LOSE THEIR SOULS You re kidding me, of course NOBODY S like THAT any That s where you re wrong, my friend There are MILLIONS like that.They re from the Second City now I KNOW you ll find that funny NO we re not talking standup comedy for goodness s sake it s the queue that s forming RIGHT NOW for Heaven Stage Right The Second City is the best of all possible Worlds It don t get any better than this God threw away the mold when He made it The first city Augustine calls the the City of Man you know it well its grit, grime and corruption have done some Serious Damage to our planet, and some DEADLY serious damage to our Hearts It s the first city, because unfortunately it s the only one most folks believe in and it s OUR first city, in time.If only the people who are still living there knew The second, of course, is the City of God Hence the title The fabled Stairway to Heaven no apologies to Led Zeppelin Going up, up to our Lost First World you know, the one we knew when we were very little and all those many people we hear about who ve been brought back from near death by modern medicine have ACTUALLY SEEN IT.Take the nomenclature as you will the fact remains that this is no pie in sky pipe dream, as turned out so unfortunately for the social climber in Zeppelin s lyrics She was going DOWN that UP STAIRWAY.These two worlds DO exist, and they re engaged in an ongoing battle To death And BEYONDAnd you know what We must each of us choose a side Which side will WE be on The Winners or the LOSERS sub specie eternitatis ^EPUB ↴ De civitate Dei ⇲ La Cit De Dieu Wikipdia La Cit De Dieu En Latin De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos La Cit De Dieu Contre Les Paens Est Une Uvre En Vingt Deux Livres D Augustin D Hippone Saint AugustinAugustinus, De Civitate Dei Horn Livres Im Deutschen Sprachraum Ist Augustinus De Civitate Dei Bislang Selten Przise Interpretiert Worden, Und Dies, Obwohl Es Sich Um Ein Schlsselwerk Der Antiken Wie Der Mittelalterlichen Ethik, Der Staats Und Der Geschichtsphilosophie Handelt Saint Augustin , La Cit De Dieu Livres I IX DeTitre Saint Augustin , La Cit De Dieu Livres I IX De Civitate Dei , Traduit En Franais Par Raoul De Presles Saint Augustin, De Civitate Dei Livres I IX , Traduction Franaise Par Raoul De Presles Saint Augustin, De Civitate Dei , Traduit En Franais ParSaint Augustin, De Civitate Dei , Traduit En Franais Par Raoul De Presles,volumes Livre I X XI XXII Saint Augustin, De Civitate Dei , Traduit En Franais Par Raoul De Presles Manuscrits Augustinus Hipponensis De Civitate Dei INDEX Praefatio Libri II Retractationum CapEpistulaA Liber Primus An Temporum Calamitates Dei Providentia Regantur Liber Secundus Plurimum Deorum Cultus S Pravos Efficit De Civitate Dei A Digital Humanities Project Welcome To De Civitate Dei Statue Of St Augustine In Crdoba S Stunning Mezquita Photo My Own These Pages Host An Ongoing Research Project To Produce A Digital Semi Diplomatic Edition Of The Oldest Surviving Manuscript Of St Augustine S De Civitate Dei Contra Paganos Latin Saint Augustin, De Civitate Dei, II,Le Bac DeMemento Autem Me Ista Commemorantem Adhuc Contra Imperitos Agere, Ex Quorum Imperitia Illud Quoque Ortum Est Vulgare Proverbium Pluvia Defit, Causa Christiani Sunt The City Of God Wikipedia Media Related To De Civitate Dei At Wikimedia Commons Works Related To The City Of God At Wikisource Latin Wikisource Has Original Text Related To This Article De Civitate Dei Bibliotheca Augustana Hs Augsburg De Civitate Dei De Civitate Dei Breviculi Liber I Liber II Liber III Liber IV Liber V Liber VI Liber VII Liber VIII Liber IX Liber X Liber XI Liber XII Liber XIII Liber XIV Liber XV Liber XVI Liber XVII Liber XVIII Liber XIX Liber XX Liber XXI Liber XXII Authoris PaginamAugustine The Latin Library CONTRA SECUNDAM IULIANI RESPONSIONEM Liber I Liber II Liber III Liber IV Liber V Liber VI SERMONES